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1644 - ¿Corporatist States¿ and Ideas in Europe and Latin America: Counter- and Pro-Mobilisation, Catholicism and Transfer (Austria, Portugal, Brazil and Argentina in the 1930s and ¿40s)

16.07.2012 | 17:30 - 19:30
17.07.2012 | 17:30 - 19:30
18.07.2012 | 17:30 - 19:30

Convener 1: Botz, Gerhard (Institut für Zeitgeschichte )
Convener 2: Costa Pinto, Antonio (University of Lisbon, 1600-189, Portugal / Portugal)

Even if corporatism did not become the dominant political force of the 20 th century as Romanian intellectual and politician Michael Manoilesco predicted in 1934, it was certainly one of the significant ideological factors in right-wing conservative politics in the 1930s and 1940s. Although these decades were overshadowed and dominated by Fascism and Nazism, corporatist concepts of society and models of states represented an element in or an alternative to fascist regimes per se as were unfolding in Italy and Germany . Everywhere corporatism became allied with more or less cruel, top-down authoritarian dictatorships, opposing liberal democracy and any kind of Marxism, and trying more or less to reconcile capitalism, traditionalist farmers and class-conscious workers in one Christian universalist ideal. Generally speaking, this makes corporatism (possibly) fit into models of societies in the process of economic and social modernisation and political mobilization passing through crises and phases of contrary tendencies, and shows how corporatist states tried to achieve some kind of adaptive counter- and/or partial pro-mobilisation. These traditionalist/reac­tionary characteristics of regimes that had to deal with dynamic societal/political forces working against them prevailed in many regions of post-World War I Europe as well as in several states in South America . From a macro-historical perspective, corporatism appears as an attempted third way out of situations seriously endangering the political position or rule of explicitly Christian parties, conservative classes (landed owners and farmers) and (aristocratic) elites in traditional Catholic political cultures.

Clearly derived from romantic and social Catholicism of the late 19 th century and never totally vanishing from the programmatic ideas of most Christian Social parties in Europe , corporatism was resurrected in the 1920s and received real boosts from Mussolini’s “Carta del Lavoro” (1927) and the “Quadragesimo Anno” encyclical in 1931. In an accentuated Catholic manner, corporatism strongly influenced Dollfuss’ Austria and Salazar’s Portugal , and fell on fertile ground in Spain and other Catholic countries in Europe . At the same time, it constituted – in addition to Fascism – one important current of corporatist influence in Latin America , particularly in Vargas’ Brazil and Argentina before and under Perón. In the so-called New World , corporatism adapted to different societal and political contexts and needs, and made clear that it was not solely a European phenomenon but also one of other continents.

Until now, historians have often put corporative ideas and “corporatist states” into the same “box” as the fascisms or the authoritarian rule being propagated at the same time, or, as has recently been the case, into the category of “para-fascism” (R.Giffin). In current research on these anti-democratic phenomena, there appears a strong tendency that turns away from long-practiced stereotyping and instead emphasizes differentiation, hybridization and change over time. The five cases of corporatism discussed in this symposium will give participants the opportunity to test these actual historiographic trends, show possibilities of comparison from historians and political scientists perspectives, and bring out further questions about transfers of ideas and political concepts in a transcontinental field. Moreover, the papers presented can raise another central question of the whole research field the issue of how and to what extent corporatist ideas and rules adapted partially to other contemporaneous phenomena as exhibited by the Austrian, Portuguese and Spanish cases which perseverated different impacts of Fascism and Nazism. The latter two also manifested influences from the re-strengthening of democracy on the global scene after World War II. This fundamental change of the context of corporatist ideas in Argentina since 1943 and in Perónism might also shed new light on other cases of corporatist states in Europe.

Title Author Country Co-Author
2996 - O pensamento corporativista em Miguel Reale: leituras do fascismo italiano no integralismo brasileiro. João Fábio, Bertonha Brazil / Brasilien
5145 - Autoritarismo e Corporativismo: o Brasil sob o Estado Novo de Getúlio Vargas Abreu, Luciano Brazil / Brasilien
10622 - O Estado Integral: a incorporação totalitária sob as bênçãos de Deus da Silva Ramos Carneiro, Márcia Regina Brazil / Brasilien
10777 - Corporatism and labour movement: the catholic labour movement and their relation with the public power in Brazil, 1909-1941. Amaral, Deivison Brazil / Brasilien
11538 - Lecturing consumers on their patriotic duties. A comparative look at propaganda in interwar Austria and Peronist Argentina Kühschelm, Oliver Austria / Österreich
12126 - Fascism, Corporatism and Political Institutions in Interwar Dictatorships Costa Pinto, Antonio United Kingdom/Ver Königr
12127 - The ¿Christliche Ständestaat¿ in Austria as a model of authoritarian corporatism in societies under crises. Botz, Gerhard Austria / Österreich
12128 - Johannes Messner: ¿organic democracy¿ as political framework of Austrian corporativism (1934 - 1938) Kepplinger , Laura Austria / Österreich
12129 - La apropiación de El siglo del corporativismo, de Michael Manoilesco, en el Brasil de Vargas (1930 a 1940) de Castro Gomes , Angela Brazil / Brasilien
12130 - Intellectual Roots of Argentine¿s Organic Nationalism and Corporatism Spektorowski, Alberto Israel / Israel

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