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7231 - Modeling the origin and dynamics of dispersion of Tupi-speaking populations based on genetic data

Authors: Eduardo José Melo dos Santos (Universidade Federal do Pará); Kelly Nunes and Diogo Meyer (Universidade de São Paulo) The Guaporé-Mamoré region (GMR) is considered the origin center of the Tupi languages. Until now no contribution for this theory was obtained from genetics. Hence, we addressed this question using new and reviewed genetic data. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup D is more frequent in Tupi from GMR (>60%) than outside GMR (< 30%). Moreover, mtDNA did not show signals of population decrease in or outside MGR. However, signals of depopulation in the GMR could be evidenced from nuclear genetic markers. This contrast could reflect differences in male and female demographic history, since mtDNA is the only maternaly inherited. Indeed, comparison between mtDNA and Y-chromosome markers (paternally inherited) showed that females migrate more than males. Nuclear markers showed that MGR Tupi display higher genetic variability corroborating the idea of MGR as origin center for Tupi. New data on 61 genetic markers for 41 populations, including 11 Tupi revealed higher genetic differentiation among MGR Tupi than among all Tupi, suggesting a deeper divergence time for MGR. Additionally, the genetic differentiation of Amazonian Tupi outside MGR was lower, corresponding with their low linguistic differentiation. Further genetic analysis revealed that the MGR Tupi cluster is separated from all other Tupi groups, which form a homogeneous cluster with Karib and Ge-speaking groups. This result agrees with the previous conclusions and suggests that non-MGR Tupi dispersed recently occupying other regions and suffer admixture with neighbor non-Tupi groups. Based on the higher female migration previously discussed, a scenario of admixture predominantly due to female interchange becomes an interesting model to be tested by linguistic and archeological approaches.

Palavras-chaves: Tupi origin, population genetics, patrilocality, gene flow

Autores: Santos, Eduardo (Federal University of Para, Brazil / Brasilien)
Co-Autores: Farias Guerreiro, João; Nunes, Kelly; Thomaz Maia, Maria Helena; Meyer, Diogo (Brazil / Brasilien)

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