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5398 - BIODIVERSITY AND HUNTER-GATHERERS FROM THE MEXICAN QUATERNARY I: ARCHAEOLOGICAL-PALEONTOLOGICAL PLEISTOCENE DEPOSIT IN SANTIAGO CHAZUMBA, OAXACA, MÉXICO: INITIAL RESULTS.

The International Project titled Biodiversity and Hunter-Gatherer from the Mexican Quaternary focuses on searching for new archaeological sites and paleontological localities in México to address the controversial issue of early peopling of México. One of those localities is at Chazumba, Oaxaca México, where there have been three field seasons (2007-2010). Excavations were undertaken with a strict stratigraphic control (grid of 6X5 m, 30-m2).

There were some lithics, like poorly-defined flakes and cores, but their association to the fauna, and to the possible evidences of anthropic marks on some flat bones, could signify the presence of hunter-gatherers along with the extinct fauna.

The Late Pleistocene fauna contains tropical affinity elements, including giant ground sloth Eremotherium laurillardi, the mylodont Paramylodon harlani, a gliptodont Glyptotherium sp., and a proboscidean Cuvieronius sp. Also, another large animal was a Columbian mammoth, Mammuthus columbi. There were remains of horse Equus sp., pronghorn Antilocapra sp., woodrat Neotoma sp., vole Microtus sp., mud turtle Kinosternon sp., and dessert tortoise Gopherus sp.

Such a faunule indicates environmental conditions quite different to those currently found in the specific locality, since today the weather is dry warm and a vegetation defined as scrubland, while some fossil animals could represent more humid and cooler conditions, suggesting the presence of a tropical forest nearby a grassland or savanna, where the mammoth and horse could survive, but also a temperate forest not far away.

The correlation of the Chazumba deposits with a nearby locality at San Juan Raya, Puebla, where an AMS radiocarbon date is known from around 19,000 years BP, provides a possible time marker for the deposit, the lithics, and extinct fauna, creating much interest. Definitively the Chazumba deposit will be an important one for describing the past environments during the early peopling of the Mexican territory.

Co-authors:
Ramón Viñas-Vallverdú2, 3, Xose Pedro Rodriguez3, 2, Albert Rubio4, Jordi Rosell3, 2, Alejandro López-Jiménez4, 5, and Irán I. Rivera-González4

Addresses:
2 IPHES, Institut Català de Paleoecologia Humana i Evolució Social, C/Escorxador s/n, 43003 Tarragona, SPAIN; 3 Area de Prehistoria, Universitat Rovira i Virgili (URV), Avinguda de Catalunya 35, 43002 Tarragona, SPAIN, rvinas@iphes.cat, josepedro.rodriguez@urv.cat, jordi.rosell@urv.cat; 4 SERP. Departament de Prehistòria Història Antiga i Arqueologia. Universitat de Barcelona. C/Montalegre 6-8, 08001 Barcelona, SPAIN, albert.rubio.mora@gmail.com; 5Licenciatura en Arqueología, Escuela Nacional de Antropología e Historia, Calle Zapote s/n Col. Isidro Fabela, Tlalpan, México, D. F., poukau@hotmail.com, ldp_enah@yahoo.com.mx

Palabras claves: Megafauna ¿ Pleistocene ¿ México ¿ Archaeological Remains

Autores: ARROYO-CABRALES, JOAQUIN (INSTITUTO NACIONAL DE ANTROPOLOGIA E HISTORIA, Mexico / Mexiko)

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