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11027 - AMAZONIAN ANTHROPOGENIC SOILS' ANTIQUITY AT UPPER RIO MADEIRA - NORTHWESTERN AMAZON, AND ITS IMPLICATIONS FOR THE COLONIZATION OF SOUTH AMERICAN NEOTROPICS

The period known as Neolithic Revolution, the result of changes in the economical base of foraging populations at the end of the Pleistocene, also known as broad-spectrum-revolution, which in many regions of the world led to the domestication of plants and animals, and that for the American continent is known as the Formative Period, until recently didn´t seem to be present in the archaeological record of South America Lowlands.

In the Amazon region we still lack information on when, where, and how small scale foraging societies changed to more sedentary lifestyles and complex social arrangements based on agriculture. Nonetheless, in the last few years there is a growing consensus that the first colonizing population of the Neotropical region did so with a broad-spectrum subsistence economy, and that Amazonian anthropogenic soils (Terra Preta Antrópica – TPA) is a crucial record for understanding this process.

Here we present data on Garbin Site, upper Madeira River - RO, which corroborates Eurico Miller provocative evidences for early cultivation of local crops by pre-ceramic groups. Garbin site presents TPA containing two distinct horizons, one with only lithics artifacts, and a second with lithic and ceramic artifacts. As it was described by Miller for other archaeological sites in the region, we found a number of artifacts associated with plant processing (e.g. ground stones). Radiocarbon analyses of samples collected from both horizons indicate a Late Holocene occupation for the lithic-ceramic horizon, and mid and early Holocene occupations for the lithic-only horizon.

Palavras-chaves: Upper Madeira River, Peopling of Southwestern Amazon, Anthropogenic Soils, Tupi origins, Plant domestication

Autores: Kipnis, Renato (Scientia Consultoria Científica, Brazil / Brasilien)

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