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3576 - Rethinking the South American Indepedence Revolutions: from the historical myth of creole patriotism to the problem of sovereignty. A counterpoint of Chile and Venezuela.

A great part of studies on the Hispanic-American political history in the early eighteenth and late ninetheent centuries has deepened in specific cases. This methodology has favoured a historiographical nationalism that has conditioned the analysis of the origins of Hispanic-American Nations. The problem of these approaches is that they imply that colonies to possess an identity protonational at the end of the 18th century, would be predisposed to be politically independent after the crisis of the Iberian monarchy. This historiography, not only reduces the revolutionary process to the conquest of independence and not delves into the configuration of a new political culture that allowed that colonies are constituted, in 1810, Republican Governments legitimized and sovereign constitutionally, they also respond convincingly why Spanish Empire was dissolved. From this point of view, it is possible to say that both Chilean political history as also the Venezuelan remains tied to traditional historiographic nationalism that not interested in receiving political models and the construction of political language study and ignores the comparative methodologies as necessary to avoid the Localism.

To understand the nature of hispanic-american republicanism and the profound effects of the political revolution that began in 1808 is necessary to first examine the changes that occurred during the second half of the eighteenth and early nineteenth century, a period in which creoles disagreed with the establishment of new territorial boundaries, with the limitations on free trade and the new government structures mandated by the Spanish monarchy. These circumstances are the backdrop of the first creoles rebellions who broke into Chile and Venezuela between 1781 and 1799 -parallel to the cycle of revolutions that took place in the Atlantic world in the late eighteenth century-, but do not explain why these insurrections and criticism of the Hispanic imperial domain were relatively easily controlled by the Spanish authorities, nor explain why at first the desire for emancipation and republican political ideas found little acceptance among Chilean and Venezuelan elites.

From these situations the Hispanic world begin to live an opening to the Atlantic world through the lifelong cultural and economic exchange that the Spanish Crown could not help sustain the idea despite an Empire unit supported by an absolutist monarchy features Universal. Perhaps for that reason, after the Napoleonic invasion of Spain in 1808 would persist in the hope that the ailing empire building of Spain in America would be maintained through a combination of loyalty and fear and covered in the traditional contractual scholastic roots.

This research will attempt to answer why the Spanish Empire, after creating a imperial structure whose strength was incomparably greater than that of the british colonies in North America, left behind the Napoleonic invasion of 1808 a crisis of political legitimacy after the collapse of imperial structure and a government vacuum that only the language and Republican political institutions were able to remedy. It is in this context of profound political and cultural should understand the role they had the reception of language and Republican political institutions in Chile and Venezuela in the process of dissolution of the Spanish imperial sovereignty. If Hispanic-American Juntas were governed by the same legal principle used by their spanish counterparts, in the absence of the king, sovereignty rested with the people, the questions that arose was who was the sovereign people? Under what conditions would remain faithful to the monarchy?

Palavras-chaves: Independencia, Patriotismo criollo, Soberanía, Republicanismo, Chile, Venezuela

Autores: Ocaranza, Nicolás (École des Hautes Études en Sciences Sociales, France / Frankreich)

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