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12160 - Transnationalizing Solidarity: Mexico City and the Americas-Wide Movement of Solidarity with Sandino and Nicaragua 1927-1934

This paper, part of a larger project on the development of transnational networks of radicals, revolutionaries and exiles in the Greater Circum Caribbean between the two world wars, examines the construction of the first continental-wide anti-imperialist solidarity movement that emerged in the late 1920s to support the military and politico-diplomatic campaign led by the Nicaraguan Augusto C. Sandino. Mexico City attracted exiles, émigrés, refugees, revolutionaries and dreamers from numerous Latin American countries throughout the 1920s, especially from Peru, Bolivia, Venezuela and Cuba. The revolutionary diaspora in Mexico City was also enriched by a wave of revolutionary activists coming from Central America including the Nicaraguan, Sandino. Sandino had already spent three years in the petroleum districts of Tampico on the Mexican Gulf coast during 1923-1926 before he returned to Nicaragua to take up the fight in a civil war that eventually morphed into a national liberation movement directed against the US Marine occupation . In 1929 and 1930, Sandino returned to Mexico to seek help, unsuccessfully, from the government of Emilio Portes Gil.

From early 1928 Mexico City become the most important of the nerve centers or hubs of the Sandinista movement, a center from which Central American and South American activists travelled to join Sandino's struggle, and the most important source of financial and political support raised from ordinary Mexicans as well as sympathizers in high office. The campaign mounted by the Hands Off Nicaragua (MAFUENIC) Committee was an early example of the solidarity movements that would proliferate all over the Americas in later decades. The paper examines the role played by Mexico-City based actors and organizations in constructing a new geography of resistance and agitation, paying particular attention to mapping the politics of publication, public gathering and agitation in the Mexican capital and to the generation of new forms of transnational networking.

Author: Carr, Barry (La Trobe University, Australia / Australien)

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