Logo

2986 - The causative-instrument(al)-antipassive connection IN NIVACLE (MATAGUAYO FAMILY, PARAGUAYAN CHACO)

In Nivacle, the - jat and -jan suffixes appear both in verbs and nouns. Added to verbs, - jan is used to derive causatives and antipassives, whereas - jat doubles as a (deverbal) noun suffix to derive man-made instruments. As a verbal suffix, -jat is only causative. As a noun suffix, it can either stand alone, if the noun is masculine, or combine with the feminine suffix - e , the classifier - shi ‘container’, or sometimes with -(ja)vo ‘instrument’. As a formative suffix for man-made instruments, - jat can be added directly to an intransitive verb base (- ui ‘to enter’ => - ui-jat-shiy ‘shirt’, - vcu’ ‘to swing [oneself]’ => - vcu-jat-shiy ‘hammock’, -[a]ôv ‘to be [sitted]’ => - ôv-jat-shiy ‘vehicle’ ). If the verb is transitive, the antipassive morpheme - jan , either alone or together with the other antipassive prefix vanc(a) -, must be added (- nucus ‘to grate, rasp [tr.]’ => - nucus-jan id. [itr.] => - nucus-jan-jat ‘grater’, - tsepjalh ‘to sew [tr.] => - vanca-tsepjalh id. [itr.] => -vanca-tsepjalh-jan-javo ‘needle’). One of the antipassive suffixes (- jan ) is homophonous with the causative suffix. Rather than casual, the formal identity between the suffixes labelled on the one hand ‘causative’ and ‘antipassive’, and on the other the derivation suffix for instruments, is better understood by locating the three functions together on a continuum linking transitivity, intransitivity and the deverbal nominalizer for man-made instruments.

Author: FABRE, ALAIN (Tampere University of Technology, Finland / Finnland)

Back

University of Vienna | Dr.-Karl-Lueger-Ring 1 | 1010 Vienna | T +43 1 4277 17575